Development of a Comprehensive Approach for Serious Traffic Crash Injury Measurement and Reporting Systems
The objectives of this research are to (a) Identify an injury scoring system for further consideration. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of conventional injury scoring systems based on International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) codes and KABCO. Document advantages and disadvantages of various definitions for a serious injury metric. (b) Develop a roadmap to assist states in developing and implementing an interim system to measure and report injury severity using accepted injury scoring systems based on ICD codes. The intent of the roadmap is to enable year-to-year performance assessment by states using a standard measure. At a minimum, the roadmap should document a workable process(es) for linking statewide crash and hospital discharge data. For states where complete crash and/or hospital discharge data do not exist, identify surrogate sources, such as trauma registries, or alternative measures, such as estimates, that can be used within the workable process as an interim step until the preferred process(es) can be implemented. Identify means to overcome technical, legal, political, financial, and other challenges to implementation and linkage of these state-based data systems. The states’ future performance assessments will yield at a minimum the number of serious injury crashes and the number of persons seriously injured in each state using a standardized definition. This step should lead to the ultimate outcome, which is a unified database as described further in (c). (c) Expanding on (b), develop a state-based framework to perform comprehensive linkage of records related to motor vehicle crashes resulting in serious injuries, and incremental steps and priorities for achieving the linkage. A direct linkage is strongly preferred but it is recognized that alternative linkage methods may be appropriate, so the framework should include methods to be used when linkage is unsuccessful. Records may include crash and citation records; pre-hospital (telematics, 911, EMS, etc.); hospital (ED/inpatient); disability; death (coroner, medical examiner, vital statistics); trauma registries; traumatic brain injury registries; and roadway and traffic inventories. The framework will provide for a comprehensive analysis and understanding of the factors associated with serious injuries before, during, and after the crashes, and the associated medical outcomes. This will allow for the development, implementation, and evaluation of countermeasures for serious injury crashes, and continuous system improvement.